Byzantine ports and harbours in the complex interplay between environment and society. An evaluation of evidence from Greece, Cyprus and Asia Minor.

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Byzantine ports and harbours in the complex interplay between environment and society. An evaluation of evidence from Greece, Cyprus and Asia Minor.
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  OFFPRINT RGZM – TAGUNGEN  Band 23 zugleich INTERDISZIPLINÄRE FORSCHUNGEN  zu den Häfen von der Römischen Kaiserzeit bis zum Mittelalter in Europa Band 2 Johannes Preiser-Kapeller · Falko Daim (eds) HARBOURS AND MARITIME NETWORKS AS COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS International Workshop »Harbours and maritime Networks as Complex Adaptive Systems« at the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum in Mainz, 17.-18.10.2013, within the framework of the Special Research Programme (DFG-SPP 1630) »Harbours from the Roman Period to the Middle Ages« Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Archäologie Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 2015  Redaktion: J. Preiser-Kapeller (Wien), Marie Röder (RGZM) Bildbearbeitung: Franz Siegmeth Illustration · Grak-Design · Malerei, Bad Vöslau / ASatz: Claudia Nickel (RGZM)Umschlaggestaltung: Reinhard Köster (RGZM) Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliograe: Detaillierte bibliograsche Daten sind im Internet über http://dnb.d-nb.de  abrufbar. ISBN 978-3-88467-248-8ISSN 1862-4812 © 2015 Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Das Werk ist urheberrechtlich geschützt. Die dadurch begründeten Rechte, insbesondere die der Übersetzung, des Nachdrucks, der Entnahme von Abbildungen, der Funk- und Fernsehsendung, der Wiedergabe auf fotomechanischem (Fotokopie, Microkopie) oder ähnlichem Wege und der Speicherung in Datenverarbeitungsanlagen, Ton- und Bildträgern bleiben, auch bei nur auszugsweiser Verwertung, vorbehalten. Die Vergütungsansprüche des §54, Abs.2, UrhG. werden durch die Verwertungsgesellschaft Wort wahrgenommen.Herstellung: betz-druck GmbH, DarmstadtPrinted in Germany.  III CONTENTS Claus von Carnap-Bornheim · Falko Daim · Peter Ettel · Ursula Warnke Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII  Johannes Preiser-Kapeller  Harbours and Maritime Networks as Complex Adaptive Systems – a Thematic Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Franck Goddio · Damian Robinson · David Fabre The Life-Cycle of the Harbour of Thonis-Heracleion: the Interaction of the Environment, Politics and Trading Networks on the Maritime Space of Egypt’s Northwestern Delta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Myrto Veikou Mediterranean Byzantine Ports and Harbours in the Complex Interplay between Environment and Society. Spatial, Socio-Economic and Cultural Considerations Based on Archaeological Evidence from Greece, Cyprus and Asia Minor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Pascal Arnaud  The Interplay between Practitioners and Decision-Makers for the Selection, Organisation, Utilisation and Maintenance of Ports in the Roman Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Flora Karagianni  Networks of Medieval City-Ports on the Black Sea (7 th -15 th  century). The Archaeological Evidence . . . . 83 Søren M. Sindbæk  Northern Emporia and Maritime Networks. Modelling Past Communication Using Archaeological Network Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105  Johannes Preiser-Kapeller  Harbours and Maritime Mobility: Networks and Entanglements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119List of Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141  Harbours and Maritime Networks as Complex Adaptive Systems V PREFACE The establishment of the Special Research Programme (SPP) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 1630 »Harbours from the Roman Period to the Middle Ages. The archaeology and history of regional and over regional trafc systems« in spring 2013 for a period of six years provides the opportunity to study the condi -tions under which anchorages, harbours and port cities emerged, were used and disappeared. Within this framework, three major European shipping zones are scrutinized, which at rst sight are characterised by very different conditions and dynamics: the Mediterranean, the Northern and Baltic Seas and inland water-ways. For all three areas, the same fundamental questions are posed: How and under what conditions inter-faces between water and land were designed and organised in space and time? Yet, natural and historical parameters as well as the available written and materials source evidence very much differ. Moreover, these various regions and periods are embedded in different and highly sophisticated scientic cultures with their own systems of concepts and thinking styles. The research focus therefore faces not only also otherwise existing challenges of major research projects to organise the analysis of immense amounts of data and the systematic exchange between the individual projects, but also to overcome »cultural« barriers between disciplines in order to ultimately provide large syntheses. Besides the necessary explanations of terms and a discussion of criteria by which comparisons are to be drawn, it is also important to consider different theoretical approaches for their applicability and to use tools of the digital humanities in order to collect and analyse the evidence and to gain new scientic ground. Special meetings held at the RGZM in Mainz for the SPP-1630 are devoted to these issues. The rst one focused on »Harbours and Maritime Networks as Complex Adaptive Systems« and took place on October 17 th  and 18 th  2013. Through the contributions of the speakers and extensive discussions, it became clear that network theory and the accompanying digital tools are well suited to analyse complex systems, such as maritime and terrestrial transport systems and their interfaces. Our thanks go to Johannes Preiser-Kapeller for the concept and organisation of the meeting as well as to the speakers who provided not only perfect presentations but also written versions of their contributions. May this collection of papers stimulate the working groups within the SPP »Harbours« and also beyond. The initiators of the SPP »Harbours«Claus von Carnap-BornheimFalko DaimPeter Ettel Ursula Warnke
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