Globalization: In Terms of Teachers' Opinion and Metaphorical Perceptions

12 pages
18 views
of 12
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Description
The purpose of this paper is to investigate teachers' opinion and metaphorical perceptions about globalization. In this paper, phenomenology one of the qualitative research type was used. 61 teachers' metaphorical perceptions about
Tags
Transcript
  http://wje.sciedupress.com World Journal of Education Vol. 8, No. 3; 2018  Published by Sciedu Press  44  ISSN    1925-0746 E-ISSN 1925-0754   Globalization: In Terms of Teachers' Opinion and Metaphorical Perceptions Semih Çayak  1,* & Menek  ş e Eskici 2   1 Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education, İ stanbul, Turkey 2 Educational Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, K  õ rklareli, Turkey *Correspondence: Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education, İ stanbul, Turkey. E-mail: semihcayak@gmail.com Received: April 24, 2018 Accepted: May 15, 2018 Online Published: May 27, 2018 doi:10.5430/wje.v8n3p44 URL: https://doi.org/10.5430/wje.v8n3p44 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to investigate teachers' opinion and metaphorical perceptions about globalization. In this  paper, phenomenology one of the qualitative research type was used. 61 teachers’ metaphorical perceptions about globalization were collected and interviewed with 12 teachers about globalization in education. Teachers’ metaphorical perceptions about globalization were determined by a space filled question (globalization is similar to...;  because ...). A semi-structured interview form has been prepared by the researchers. The opinions of the teachers can  be summarized as teachers associate globalization with technology, especially with the internet. In general teachers mentioned that the effects of globalization in education are positive. Further teachers’ metaphorical perceptions about globalization summarized as follows; village, market, whirlpool, family, shopping, teapot, neighborhood, technology. Withal teachers’ reasons for analogy of the metaphors about globalization are grouped as; globalization as a unifying of differences concept, globalization as a communication and interaction enhancer concept, globalization as a damaging concept and globalization as an indefinite concept. Keywords: globalization, teachers' opinion, metaphorical perceptions 1. Introduction Within the historical process, it is seen that different phenomenons have left its mark on different periods. The globalization phenomenon (Öz-K  õ l õ nç, 2009), a key concept describing the increasing in interdependence of today's societies in which no life in any country is not separated entirely from the rest of the world anymore, indicates changes and transformations which are in various fields from information to economy, from culture to politics in a way of the interaction, dependence, merger and integration ( Ş ener, 2014). The rapid changes in the fields of communication, information and informatics depending upon scientific, technological and economic development, have brought out the concept of globalization by removing the importance of the boundaries between nations (Akdemir, 2004). Globalization which is a concept leaving its mark on 21st century (Y õ lmaz, 2004), is one of the most-debated concepts nowadays especially in the academic and economical circles (Y õ lmaz & Horzum, 2005, Kaya, 2009). Globalization, which is used to express the change almost in every field of the world from the economy to politics, social politics to culture (Bozkurt, 2000), can be considered as a characteristic feature of education as well (Kartal, 2007). The concept, Globalization, from the USA was successfully introduced in the world literature and took part in its place today (Da ğ l õ , 2007). Despite the fact that the concept of globalization (Kürkçü, 2013), whose srcinators are liberal thinkers such as Muray Rohtbard and David Friedman, is not a common idea, it is a concept symbolizing the change in every area on which it has affected, and whose profound effects are seen especially in information and economy as well as other social fields (Çavu ş o ğ lu, 2007). While Ş ahin (2011) defines globalization as the spreading of some values and structures to the world scale by transcending over local and national boundaries in terms of economic, political and cultural aspects, Kan (2009) defines globalization as structure which was formed resulting of further confrontations of different countries together with the development of communication and transportation possibilities. In furtherance of the other definitions of globalization, Power (2000) states that globalization causes the world to shrink even further.  http://wje.sciedupress.com World Journal of Education Vol. 8, No. 3; 2018  Published by Sciedu Press  45  ISSN    1925-0746 E-ISSN 1925-0754   The globalization that affects people, societies and states as a postmodern dimension of change (Do ğ an, 2002), in the whole world's single ground axis that it revealed with its different processes and actors, means that the concentration of economic relations, the flow of information easily transcending physical boundaries, the new reference point in the fields of identity and culture, the becoming of global problems into a common problems of all mankind (Ate ş , 2007; Holton, 2000). As pointed out by Karaman (2010), while, the process of resemblance of societies to each other in the  process of globalization reveals a global culture the differences on the other hand point out to the cultural diversity of societies. It is possible to define the globalization widely as removing of national borders and integration of free markets by transcending these borders in consequence of movement of money and goods and development of trade and knowledge (Yorgun, 1998). But in essence, it seems that globalization is not a system in which the borders of the country are removed as it is asserted by many people. As a matter of fact, the borders of the country are necessary for the survival of cheap labor repository. However, globalization is far from the concept of nationalism that is defined by boundaries. When global companies go to other countries for cheap labor, jobs are created in these countries, but this leads to unemployment in rich countries. In this respect, it is also a fact that globalization is distorting the international and inland income distribution (Ertuna, 2006). Globalization, which had not been widely used until the beginning of the 1960s, even though it has a history of over 400 years, were particularly influential in international trade in the 1950s and 1960s (Erdinç, 1999). Another important  process behind the phenomenon of globalization is that societies become information societies through developing technology (Guidelines, 2002). Oran (2000) who stated that the globalization process took place in three phases, stated that the first phase began with the discovery of the American continent in 1492, followed by the second phase taking from the 1870s to the 1890s in which the globalization institutionalized, and lastly he stated that it was proceeded to the third phase which began with revealing of the multinational corporations in the 1970s, went on with communication revolution in the 1980s, became popular in the 1990s by means of non-rival of West. Approaches concerning to globalization in the literature are classified as "extreme globalization supporters", "skeptics" and "transformationalists" by following Held, McGrew, Goldbaltt and Perraton (Bozkurt, 2010; Elçin, 2012). All three groups defined the concept of globalization according to their own, but they did not radically rejected this period that were lived. Because the main difference between these three views stem from their worldviews that they represent rather than from phenomenons (Elçin, 2012; Yalç õ nkaya, Ç õ lbant & Yalç õ nkaya, 2012). There have been positive and negative effects concerning to globalization as well as positive and negative effects of every change and transformation. The common values of man have begun to emerge, human and his works, culture and civilization have been re-interpreted over again. From this point of view, it was understood that educating only the  people from select segment of each country is not the way to go, and there is a need for a quality population who was mass-grown by an education system reaching grassroots level for development. It was also an inevitable ending that common understanding and perception developed among the citizens of the country through the establishment of new and common lifestyles among people and common education policies (Bilhan, 1996; Balay, 2004). Globalization has a close relationship with education (Çelik & Gömleksiz, 2000). Because raising creative and innovative people is the main purpose of the information age education. In this respect, it is now necessary to teach the individual how and in what ways he will access to information needed rather than directly transferring information to the individual (Çal õ k & Sezgin, 2005). According to Kirkwood (2001), the world's shrinking and becoming a global village has also reflected to the educational process. Therefore, in the process of globalization, education is seen as a  process that provides continuously learning, knowing knowledge, being knowledgeable, producing knowledge, living with knowledge, that is, a process that raises the individuals who fulfill the requirements of globalization (Da ğ l õ , 2007, Titrek, Güne ş , & Sezen). According to Pike (2000), this must be carried out by planting global values without giving up national education in this globalizing world. On the other hand, student exchange programs are becoming widespread at almost every level of education nowadays. This situation leads students to think globally by giving them the opportunity to recognize different countries and cultures, to find jobs in different countries or to establish them (Tezcan, 2002). In addition, schools and universities are opening their branch offices in other countries through bilateral agreements, which require distance education. Thus, globalization is creating an international educational market (Ç õ nar, 2009). Levitt (1984) states that one of the key  benefits of globalization is that it is allowing low-income groups to be trained for adapting to modern life. Raising students who can successfully adapt to the globalizing world is only possible with the teachers who were self-educated about globalization in the education sector. In this case, the education that teachers have from the teaching period to the in-service training needs to be regulated in the context of globalization. At the beginning of the  http://wje.sciedupress.com World Journal of Education Vol. 8, No. 3; 2018  Published by Sciedu Press  46  ISSN    1925-0746 E-ISSN 1925-0754   topics to be considered in the regulation of the teachers' education are the opinions and thoughts of the teachers. From this point of view, it was tried to determine the global views and metaphorical perceptions of teachers in this research. 1.1 Problem Statement What are the teachers' opinions and metaphorical perceptions about globalization? 1.2 Sub-problems (Hypotheses) 1.What are the teachers' metaphorical perceptions about globalization? 2.What are the teachers' opinions about globalization? 2. Method This section contains information on the design of the research, study group, data collection tools, collection and analysis of data.   2.1 Method of the Research The phenomenology design, one of the qualitative research types, was used in this study in which views of teachers on the concept of globalization and their metaphorical perceptions were investigated, in the study. The data of the research shows a triangulation method feature in terms of being obtained by interviews with teachers and by metaphors collected from teachers. Triangulation is based on careful examination of the data obtained by different methods in order that qualitative researches and their results produce more accurate and valid estimates for a specific structure (Oliver-Hoyo & Allen, 2006; Yeasmin, & Rahman, 2012). 2.2 Population-Sampling The data of the research were obtained from the teachers who were working in different branches in the province of K  õ rklareli in the academic year of 2016-2017. Teachers who participated in the research were selected by easy accessibility method. 61 (39 females, 22 males) teachers’ metaphorical perceptions about globalization were collected and interviewed with 12 (8 females, 4 males) teachers about globalization in education. 2.3 Data Collection Tools Teachers’ metaphorical perceptions about globalization were determined by a space filled question (globalization is similar to...; because ...). Besides a semi-structured interview form has been prepared by the researchers to determine the opinions of teachers about globalization. The form have five questions; “How does globalization affect the class climate?”, “What are the advantages of globalization over the educational process?”, “What are the disadvantages of globalization on the educational process?”, “What should be done for better education in the globalizing world?” and “How does globalization affect your career plans?” 2.4 Analysis Techniques The qualitative data of collected were analyzed through content analysis technique. 2.5 Reliability and Validity of Data Two researchers analyzed the content of the data separately. The two results compare with each other in the light of the formula “Reliability = Consensus / Consensus + Disagreement x 100”. Compliance rate between two outcomes was found as .76. It can be said that the analyzes are reliable based on this result (Miles & Huberman 1994). 3. Findings In this section, the metaphors produced by the teachers for the concept of globalization and the frequencies of these metaphors are given. Later, the categories that were created from these metaphoric images were explained by supported by the quotations produced by the teachers. 3.1 Metaphor  İ  mages and Frequencies Related to the Concept of Globalization When the metaphorical images that teachers used in relation to the concept of globalization are examined, a total of 56 valid and 41 different metaphor images were obtained from 61 teachers. Teachers’ metaphorical perceptions about globalization summarized as follows; village (4), market (4), whirlpool (3), family (3), shopping (3), teapot (2), neighborhood (2), technology (2). Metaphor images that a part from these metaphor images were once preferred. The results Presented in Table 1.  http://wje.sciedupress.com World Journal of Education Vol. 8, No. 3; 2018  Published by Sciedu Press  47  ISSN    1925-0746 E-ISSN 1925-0754   Table 1. Metaphor İ mages and Frequencies Related to the Concept of Globalization  Metaphor İ mages f Metaphor İ mages f Village 4 Human (Live) 1 Market 4 District 1 Whirlpool 3 Communication 1 Family 3 Kinship 1 Shopping 3 Butterfly Effect 1 Teapot 2 Matryoshka 1  Neighborhood 2 Metropol 1 Technology 2 Heterogeneous Fluid 1 İ nternet 2 Competition 1 Mall 1 Picture 1 Peer Bullying 1 Industry 1 Bee 1 Book With No Page Number 1 Military 1 Smoking 1 Fire 1 Fog Screen 1 Swamp 1 Supermarket 1 Knowledge Society 1 Process 1 Damaged Scales 1 Blaze 1 Wheel Gears 1 Degeneration 1 Desert 1 Time Travelling 1 Pit 1 Total 56 Soccer Ball 1 3.2 Reasons for Metaphorical Similarity to the Concept of Globalization Teachers’ reasons for analogy of the metaphors about globalization are grouped as; globalization as a unifying of differences concept (f = 21), globalization as a communication and interaction enhancer concept (f = 19), globalization as a damaging concept (f = 13) and globalization as an indefinite concept (f = 3). The results Presented in Table 2. Table 2. Reasons for Metaphorical Similarity to the Concept of Globalization  Categories Metaphor İ mages f Globalization As A Unifying Concept Of Differences Market (4), Family (3), Village (2), Teapot (2), Metropol (1), Communication (1), District (1), Industry (1), Supermarket (1), Picture (1), Soccer Ball (1), Military (1), Neighborhood (1), Matryoshka (1) 21 Globalization As A Concept To Enhance Communication And Interaction Shopping (3), Technology (2), Village (2), İ nternet (2), Time Travelling (1),  Neighborhood (1), Kinship (1), Mall(1), Process (1), Wheel Gears (1), Whirlpool (1), Human (Live) (1), Knowledge Society (1), Butterfly Effect (1) 19 Globalization As A Harmful Concept Whirlpool (2),Desert (1), Competition (1), Peer Bullying (1), Bee (1), Swamp (1), Pit (1), Smoking (1), Damaged Scales (1), Degeneration (1), Blaze (1), Fire (1) 13 Globalization As An Indeterminate Concept Fog Screen (1), Book With No Page Number (1), Heterogeneous Fluid (1) 3 Total 56   http://wje.sciedupress.com World Journal of Education Vol. 8, No. 3; 2018  Published by Sciedu Press  48  ISSN    1925-0746 E-ISSN 1925-0754   Some of the participants' opinions regarding the categories shown in Table 2 are as follows:  a) Globalization as a concept to unify differences  21 metaphors were produced in this category. Teachers perceive globalization as a concept that brings together the differences, in doing so, that in fact, standardizates many things. The views of participant for this category given as follows: “Globalization is like a market; because the different colors of the world coexist “(Teacher 29). “Globalization is like a family; because it requires integration” (Teacher 42). “Globalization is like a supermarket; because it contains many different concepts” (Teacher 31). “Globalization is like a military; because it will make people be monotype by destroying the differences” (Teacher 51). b) Globalization as a concept to enhance communication and interaction  19 metaphors were produced in this category. Teachers perceive globalization as an element that enhances communication and interaction among people. Some of the participants's views on this category given as follows: “Globalization is like shopping; because different ideas are taken and given among people by means of globalization” (Teacher 9). “Globalization is like village; because the prevalence of the means of communication transformed the world into a  small village” (Teacher 12). “Globalization is like kinship; because it increased interaction of people in the world between each other”(Teacher26). c) Globalization as a damaging concept  13 metaphors were produced in this category. Teachers think that globalization has corrupted the specific structures of societies, and degenerated local culture by creating a universal structure. Teachers, therefore, perceive globalization as a damaging concept. Some of the participants's views on this category given as follows: “Globalization is like a desert; because, it will gradually dry up everything” (Teacher 1). “Globalization is like a peer bullying; Because, Strong people always dominate on weak people, and exploit them” (Teacher 21). “Globalization is like a swamp; because it draws everything into it” (Teacher 32). d) Globalization as an indeterminate concept  3 metaphors were produced in this category. Teachers perceive globalization as an entirely unknown concept. Some of the participants's views on this category given as follows: “Globalization is like a fog curtain; because it blurs the minds of the people” (Teacher 13). “The globalization is like a book whose page numbers are unidentified; because as we examine and investigate the topic, globalization deepens. Even if it is made into a book, the topics grow and the book becomes thicker. It will have an infinite page number” (Teacher 39). “Globalization is like a heterogeneous liquid; because it contains many complex structures” (Teacher 47). 3.3 Findings Belonging to Views of Teachers on the Concept of Globalization Views of teachers on the concept of globalization were examined and the findings were examined under two categories as "effects of globalization on educational process “and "recommendations for better education in a globalized society". Findings related to these categories are given below. 3.3.1 Effects of Globalization on Educational Process The views of teachers related to the effects of globalization on the educational process are given in table 3.
Related Search
Similar documents
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks