Https jyx jyu fi dspace bitstream handle 123456789 13594 URN NBN fi jyu-2007600

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Https jyx jyu fi dspace bitstream handle 123456789 13594 URN NBN fi jyu-2007600
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  The Role of Timbre in the Memorization of Microtonal Intervals Pro GraduRafael Ferrer FloresDepartment of MusicUniversity of Jyv ä skyl ä September 2007  JYVÄSKYLÄN YLIOPISTO Tiedekunta - Faculty Humanities Laitos - Department Music Tekijä - Author  Rafael Ferrer Flores Työn nimi - Title The Role of Timre in the Memori!ation of Microtonal "nter#als $ppiaine - %uject Music& Mind and Technolo'y Työn laji - Le#el Master(s Thesis Aika - Month and year  %eptemer )**+ %i#umäärä - ,umer of pa'es . Tii#istelmä - Astract The aim of this thesis /as to determine if timre has any effect in the memori!ation of melodic inter#als0 For this purpose& a test /as de#eloped in /hich )1 sujects heard an inter#al& and after + seconds of silence /ere played three options from /hich they had to select the ori'inal inter#al0 The sound samples composin' each tar'et inter#al& had one control and three de'rees of timral modification0 %uch modifications consisted in alterin' the ori'inal partial structure of the sound samples0 %pectral Modellin' and Additi#e %ynthesis techni2ues /ere used to reali!e these modifications0Results su''est that is possile to enhance or impair the aility of e3tractin' cues for memori!in' inter#als y alterin' timral structure0 Asiasanat - 4ey/ords timre& memory& ear trainin' %äilytyspaikka - DepositoryMuita tietoja - Additional information  bstract The aim of this thesis /as to determine if timre has any effect in the memori!ation of melodic inter#als0 For this purpose& a test /as de#eloped in /hich )1 sujects heard an inter#al& and after + seconds of silence /ere played three options from /hich they had to select the ori'inal inter#al0 The sound samples composin' each tar'et inter#al& had one control and three de'rees of timral modification0 %uch modifications consisted in alterin' the ori'inal partial structure of the sound samples0 %pectral Modellin' and Additi#e %ynthesis techni2ues /ere used to reali!e these modifications0Results su''est that is possile to enhance or impair the aility of e3tractin' cues for memori!in' inter#als y alterin' timral structure0  Table of !ontents " Intro#$ction%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%&' Theoretical consi#erations%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%"( )05Music education0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000005))05056ar trainin'00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000051)050)"nter#als0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000057)0)Timre00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000058)0)05Timre and scales000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000005.)0)0505%pectral shape0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000005.)0)050)9onsonance : Dissonance00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000005;)0)0501%cales0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000)*)0)0507Relations et/een timre& consonance and scale000000000000000000000000)5)01Memory000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000)7)0105A three sta'es in one000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000)7)010505%ensory memory00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000)7)01050)%hort-term memory0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000)8)010501Lon'-term memory0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000))010507<orkin' memory0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000))010)Memory for timre000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000) ) *m+irical a++roach%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%', 105Method00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000).10505Desi'n0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000).1050)=articipants000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000);10501Materials00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001*1050105%timuli0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001* Selection..................................................................................................30Discrimination.........................................................................................31Analysis...................................................................................................31  Synthesis.................................................................................................35 105010)Apparatus00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000007510507=rocedure0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000007)10508Results00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000007)10)Discussion000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000710)05Adaptaility000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000007.10)0)Timre descriptors00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000008* - !oncl$sions%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%.& References..............................................................................................................59Appendix A. Instructive of the experiment............................................................67Appendix B. Questionnaire....................................................................................68 In#e/ of Ill$strations Fi'ure 50 Representation of sensory dissonance y =lompt > Le#elt000000000000000000000000000)5Fi'ure )0 Rou'hness and ratios00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000))Fi'ure 10 63ample of dissonance cur#e computed /ith %ethares( al'orithm0000000000000000)1Fi'ure 70 Desi'n of the e3periment0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000);Fi'ure 80 Minima hits from +1 dissonance cur#es0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001)Fi'ure 0 Mean dissonance cur#e for a set of +1 different timres000000000000000000000000000000011Fi'ure +0 Representation of timre in relation /ith the steps of different scales00000000001+Fi'ure .0 63ample of adjustment of timral structure0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001.Fi'ure ;0 %ynthesis types000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000007*Fi'ure 5*0 Appearance of the e3perimental interface000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000075Fi'ure 550 Accuracy per inter#al00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000077Fi'ure 5)0 Accuracy per %ynthesis Type0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000078Fi'ure 510 Accuracy per "nstrument Type0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000007Fi'ure 570 Tendency of responses 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000007+
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