Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis

6 pages
of 6
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis
  Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis Vol. VIII1, April 2012   1 http://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/JPKT  ITRASPEI!I VARIATI" I T#E REPR"$%TIVE E!!"RT A&"' T#REE P"P%(ATI"S "! A ITERTI$A( 'ASTR"P"$,  erita japonica  )$unker* ) Variasi Indeks Kematangan Gonad Interspesies pada Tiga Populasi Gastropoda Intertidal,  erita japonica (Dunder) * arolus P. Paruntu 1   1  Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas am !atulan"i# $anado# ula%esi Utara Penelitian ini &ertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan indeks kematan"an "onad dari "a   stropoda intertidal#  erita japonica  'an" hidup di ti"a ha&itat 'an" &er&eda di Pulau himoshima (makusa# K'ushu &a"ian &arat# Jepan". Parameter 'an" diamati pada setiap populasi adalah: )a* nilai rata+rata  &erat kerin" "onad matan"# )&* indeks kematan"an "onad# dan )c* hu&un"an antara indeks kematan"an "onad dan ukuran tu&uh. ,ata dicatat pada periode musim pemijahan. Keti"a populasi memperlihatkan nilai rata+rata &erat kerin" "onad 'an" matan" dan indeks kematan"an "onad 'an" &er&eda. Populasi  pantai &er&atu memiliki nilai rata+rata &erat kerin" matan" "onad dan indeks kematan"an "onad 'an"  palin" &esar# diikuti oleh nilai dari populasi pantai &er&atu &a"ian &a%ah dan populasi pantai &er&atu  &a"ian atas memiliki nilai 'an" palin" kecil. elanjutn'a# satu dari ti"a populasi# 'aitu populasi pantai  &er&atu &a"ian atas memperlihatkan indeks kematan"an "onad dari individu+individu &etina  . japonica   &erhu&un"an den"an ukuran tu&uhn'a. ekalipun indeks kematan"an "onad dari individu+individu  .  japonica  menin"kat secara si"ni-ikan den"an &ertam&ahn'a ukuran tu&uh# namun terdapat variasi intraspesi-ik pada  . japonica  dalam hal indeks kematan"an "onad menurut ha&itat %alaupun secara "eo"ra-is &erdekatan. Kata kun+i  ukuran tubuh matang kelamin, berat kering gonad matang, indeks kematangan gonad, variasi intraspesifik, erita japonica.  The aim o- the present research is to -i"ure out the reproductive e--ort o-  erita japonica  occurrin" in three di--erent intertidal ha&itats o- (makusa himoshima Island# %estern K'ushu# Japan. !ock' shore population and other t%o ston' shore populations )the upper ston' shore and the lo%er ston' shore* %ere descri&ed &ased on: )a* its mean mature "onad dr' %ei"ht# )&* reproductive e--ort# and )c* the relationship &et%een reproductive e--ort and &od' sie. ,ata recorded in the period o- spa%nin" season. The results revealed that there %ere mean mature "onad dr' %ei"ht and reproductive e--ort variations amon" three snail populations. $ean mature "onad dr' %ei"ht and reproductive e--ort %ere lar"er -or the !ock' shore population# intermediate -or lo%er stone shore population# and smaller -or the upper stone shore population. In one out o- three populations# i.e .# the upper stone shore population# reproductive e--ort o- mature -emales increased si"ni-icantl' %ith an increase in &od' sie. The data sho%ed that reproductive e--ort is related to adult &od' sie o-  . japonica . There %as an intraspeci-ic variation in reproductive e--ort amon" three populations o-  . japonica  over even small "eo"raphic distances. Ke-ords  mature body size, mature gonad dry weight, reproductive effort, intraspecific variation,  erita japonica.   ITR"$%TI" tudies on intra+speci-ic variations in di--erent ha&itats are important to understand+din" o- li-e histor' patterns. uch studies are use-ul to determine %hether di--erences amon"  populations occur due to "enetic di--erences amon" populations# environmental di--erences amon" ha&itats# or a com&ination o- &oth. The reproductive e--orts o- intertidal animals var' %ith the -ood suppl'# nutrient availa&ilit'# %a+ter stress# and shore hei"ht )Fletcher 10*. 2a+riation amon" local su&populations can &e ex+ plained &' local variation in &oth &iotic and a&iotic -actors includin" -ood a&undance# stre+n"th o- competition# and ha&itat structures )3ranch 101*. The &ehavior# a"e# and "ro%th o-  . ja ponica  have &een also &een documented as one o- the intertidal macro&enthos in rock' shores o- 4atakejima Island )5h"aki# 6778*. !ecruit+ment success# chan"e in densit' and distri&ution  Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis Vol. VIII1, April 2012   2 http://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/JPKT  ran"e o- this species have &een used as indica+tors -or shore environmental conditions )Taka+da# 6770*. 2ariation in the morphometr' o- e"" capsules and em&r'os# relationship &et%een -e+cundit' and sies o- capsules and em&r'os# and relationship &et%een adult &od' sie and repro+ductive traits o-  . japonica  have &een -ound a+mon" ei"ht local populations occurrin" in di--e+rent intertidal ha&itats o- (makusa himoshima Island# %estern K'ushu# Japan )Paruntu and To+keshi 6778*. Intra and inter+speci-ic variation in the morphometr' o- -our intertidal "astropods species# i.e. #  Monodonta labio  and  . japonica  -rom %estern K'ushu# Japan# and  . polita  and  . exuvia  -rom $anado# Indonesia %ere investi+"ated &' Paruntu )6779*. The "ro%th rates o-  .  japonica  occurrin" in three di--erent intertidal ha&itat o- (makusa himoshima Island# %estern K'ushu# Japan %ere also investi"ated &' Parun+tu )6716*. It is assumed# that individuals o-  .  japonica  -rom di--erent populations ma' sho% variation in reproductive e--ort# %hich ma' in turn &e associated %ith &od' sie. The aim o- this stud' is to determine variation in reproduc+tive e--ort amon" three local populations o-  .  japonica  inha&itin" di--erent intertidal ha&itats o- (makusa himoshima Island# %estern K'u+shu# Japan. peci-icall'# %e -ocused on )1* va+riation in mean mature "onad dr' %ei"ht#   )6* reproductive e--ort and )8* relationship &et%een reproductive e--ort and mature &od' sie. &ATERIA(S A$ &ET#"$S Stud- sites This research %as esta&lished on the Tomioka Peninsula )8681; <# 18776; =* o- (makusa himoshima Island# south+%estern Ja+ pan )Fi". 1*. 5ne stud' site %as set up on an exposed intertidal rock' ) i.e .# the upper (kai%a rock' shore 1 )!I** and t%o stud' sites %ere on the moderatel' exposed intertidal ston' shore ) i.e .# t%o tidal ones o- the ma"ariaki ston' shore 8# the upper ston' shore )8 u * and lo%er ston' shore )8 l  ** )Fi". 1*. 5n the rock' shore 1 )!1*# the upper one %as the onl' area that had &een o&served throu"h preliminar' stud' to sho% the presence  . japonica . It %as -ound that the slope o- this rock' %as steep# %hereas that o- ston' shore %as "entle. hore hei"ht di-+-erence &et%een the lo%er )8 l  * and upper )8 u * ston' shores %as 90 cm# and that &et%een the lo%er ston' )8 l  * and upper rock' )!1*# the shores hei"ht %as >1 cm# %hereas &et%een the upper ston' )8 u * and upper rock' )!1* shores %as 18 cm. It %as -ound that &et%een the upper rock' )!I* and upper ston' )8 u * shores# there %as no si"ni-icant shore hei"ht di--erence. For a "eneral description o- these shores# see $ori and Tanaka )10*# Takada and Kikuchi )17*# Paruntu and Tokeshi )6778*# Paruntu )6779*# and Paruntu )6711*. Si/e at aturit- and reprodu+tie eort Fi"ure 1. $ap o- stud' area. ?ocation o- samplin" sites )!1# 8 u # and 8 l  *. ($3?: (makusa $arine 3iolo"ical ?a&orator'# K'ushu Universit'. hell len"th at %hich snails &ecome se+xuall' mature# mature "onad dr' %ei"ht and re+ productive e--ort ) i.e .# the proportion o- mature "onad dr' %ei"ht out o- the total &od' tissue dr' %ei"ht* %ere investi"ated -or the upper rock' )!1*# upper ston' )8 u *# and lo%er ston' )8 l  * shore populations to determine i- sie at maturit'# mature "onad dr' %ei"ht and the reproductive e--ort varied amon" populations. (pproximatel' 177 snails over a sie ran"e )@> mm in shell len"th* %ere collected &' hand and -orceps at each site in the period o- spa%nin" season# i.e .# late (pril to earl' $a' 6776. This sie ran"e %as used &ecause preliminar' o&ser+vation indicated the maturation sie o- the overall populations %as &i""er than > mm. na+ils %ith mature "onads ) i.e .# 'ello% ovar' %ith  Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis Vol. VIII1, April 2012   3 http://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/JPKT  %hite cr'stal sac* and %ithout the cephalic pe+nis %ere considered to &e mature -emales  . ja ponica  )Fi". 6a# &*. 5n the other hand# snails %ith 'ello% "onad testis and the cephalic penis %ere considered to &e mature males  . japonica  )Fi". 6c#d*. nails %ere steamed -or 8A9 minutes and the %hole so-t &od' tissues %ere removed -rom the shells. $ature -emale and male "onads %ere separated out o- the %hole so-t &od' tissues under a dissectin" microscope. Bhen+ever# mature male "onads %ere di--icult to &e separated out o- the %hole &od' tissues# and then the' %ere o&tained &' omittin" seminal vesicle and testis parts )Fi". 6e*. The -emale and male shells# so-t &od' tissues )out o- "o+nad*# and "onads %ere dried at C7D -or >6 h to o&tain dr' %ei"ht o- shell# so-t &od' tissue# and "onad o- each individual. Then the -emale and male shells %ere measured &' usin" a di"ital electronic caliper to 7.71 mm precision. Bhe+reas total dr' %ei"ht o- the &od' tissues o- -e+male and male snails %ere derived as the dr' %ei"ht o- so-t &od' tissues o- -emale and male  plus the dr' %ei"ht o- mature -emale or male "onads# respectivel'. (n (<52( %as used to detect i- matu+re &od' sies and mature "onad dr' %ei"ht va+ried amon" three populations )okal E !    ohl- 19*. I- si"ni-icant e--ect %as detected# a Tuke'+Kramer multiple comparisons test %as emplo'ed to separate out %hich pairs o- sam+ ples actuall' di--ered. Furthermore# the data o- reproductive e--ort and mature &od' sie %ere trans-ormed to arcsine and natural lo"arithms# respectivel'# to sta&ilie the variances. These trans-ormed data %ere then anal'ed &' re"res+sion anal'sis to examine reproductive e--ortma+ture &od' sie relationship and &' (<52( and Tuke'+Kramer test to detect di--erence in repro+ductive e--ort amon" sites. RES%(TS Si/e at aturit- hell len"th at %hich -emale snails &e+came sexuall' mature and mean -emale matura+tion sie varied amon" three populations )Ta&le 1*. Female snails in the 8 u  population &e"an to mature &' >. mm# %hile -emale snails -rom the !1 and 8 l   did not mature until 17. mm and 17.1 mm# respectivel'. The !1 population had the lar"est mean -emale maturation sie )1.0 mm*# 8 l   population had intermediate mean -emale maturation sie )16.8 mm*# %hile the 8 u  population had the smallest mean -emale maturation sie ).1 mm* )Tuke'+Kramer test#    7.7771*. Furthermore# shell len"ths at %hich male snails &ecame sexuall' mature and mean male maturation sie also varied amon" three  populations )Ta&le 1*. $ale snails in the 8 u   population &e"an to mature &' >.9 mm# %hile male snails -rom the !1 and 8 l   did not mature until . mm and .> mm# respectivel'. The !1  population had the lar"est mean male matura+tion sie )18.C mm*# 8 l   population had inter+mediate mean male maturation sie )11.> mm*# %hile the 8 u  population had the smallest mean male maturation sie )0.0 mm* )Tuke'+Kramer test#    7.7771*. Reprodu+tie eort $ean mature -emale "onad dr' %ei"ht varied amon" three populations )Ta&le 1*. The !1 population had the lar"est mean mature -emale "onad dr' %ei"ht )7.766 "*# 8 l   popula+tion had intermediate mean mature -emale "o+nad dr' %ei"ht )7.718 "*# %hile the 8 u  popu+lation had the smallest mean mature -emale "o+nad dr' %ei"ht )7.778 "* )Tuke'+Kramer test#    7.7771*. Furthermore# mean mature male "o+nad dr' %ei"ht also varied amon" three popula+tions )Ta&le 1*. $ean mature male "onad dr' %ei"ht %as lar"er -or the !1 population )7.770 "*# intermediate -or 8 l   population )7.779 "*# and smaller -or 8 u  population )7.771 "* )Tuke'+Kramer test#     7.7771*. !elationship &et%een reproductive e-+-ort o- mature -emales )arcsine+trans-ormed  percenta"e values* and its lo" shells len"th %as investi"ated amon" three populations )Fi". 8a*. !e"ression lines -rom the !1 and 8 l   popula+tions %ere not si"ni-'cant indicatin" that repro+ductive e--ort o- mature -emales -rom each o- the t%o populations did not chan"e %ith snail sie# %hile re"ression line -rom the 8 u  popula+tion %as si"ni-icant# indicatin" that the repro+ductive e--ort o- mature -emales increased %ith its snail sie. Tuke'+Kramer test revealed that reproductive e--ort o- the !1@8 u # 8 l  @8 u # %hile the !1 G 8l )    7.7771*. !elationship  &et%een reproductive e--ort o- mature male individuals )arcsine+trans-ormed percenta"e va+lues* and its lo" shells len"th %as also investi+"ated amon" three populations )Fi". 8&*. !e+"ression lines -rom all three populations %ere not si"ni-icant# indicatin" that reproducetive e-+-ort o- mature males -rom each o- three popula+  Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis Vol. VIII1, April 2012   4 http://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/JPKT  tions did not chan"e %ith its snail sie. Tuke'+Kramer test revealed that reproductive e--ort o- the !1@8 u # 8 l  # and 8 l  @8 u  )    7.7771*. Ta&le 1. $ature &od' sie ran"e# mean mature &o+d' sie )H .,.*# mean mature "onad dr' %ei"ht )H .,.* -or three populations The num&er in the parenthesis repre+sents the num&er individuals examined. (ste+risks indicate that the values are si"ni-icantl' di--erent amon" three populations )Tuke'+Kramer test#      7.7771*. $IS%SSI" Three populations o-  . japonica  di--e+red markedl' in man' o- the population varia+ &les measured durin" this stud'. ie at %hich snails mature and maximum &od' sie are link+ed &ecause  . japonica  tends to cease "ro%th at maturit'. $aximum &od' sie o- snails var    ied amon" shores %ith snails -rom the 8 u  popula+tion ceasin" "ro%th at small sie# snails -rom the 8 l   population ceasin" "ro%th at interme+diate sie# %hile snails -rom the !1 population ceasin" "ro%th at lar"e sies )Paruntu 6716*. The reproductive e--ort o- an or"anism is measured &' ener"' &ud"ets and "onad to &o+d' %ei"ht ratios# &oth o- them "ave similar result -or limpet -ound &' Parr' )106*. This is supported &' pivak et al  . )6716* %ho studied the intertidal cra&s that ener"' demands in+-licted &' harsh environmental conditions could also a--ect the reproduction. In the present stu+d'# %e used the proportion o- mature -emale or male "onad dr' %ei"ht out o- total &od' tissue dr' %ei"ht as a measure o- the reproductive e-+-ort o- individuals -rom three intertidal shore  populations o-  . japonica . !eproductive e--ort o- an individual or species ma' or ma' not increase allometricall' %ith a"e. The reproductive e--ort o- the !ellana tramoserica  individuals %ithin a population %as -ound to &e independent o- a"e )Fletcher 10*. This stud' -ound that the reproductive e--ort o- -emale or male individuals -rom all three populations %as not di--erent over the sie ran"e )except the reproductive e--ort o- -emale individuals -rom the 8 u  population*. ,i--erences in reproductive e--ort# mature -emale and male "onad dr' %ei"ht# and the packa"in" o- em&r'os amon" sites# popula+tions appeared to di--er in the allocation o- ener"' to o--sprin". Fecundit' data su""est that the lar"est reproductive e--ort -rom the lar"est !1 shore snails invest the "reatest ener"' to o--sprin" per capsule# %hile that -rom the smallest 8 u  shore snails invest the smallest )Paruntu and Tokeshi 6778*. This is similar to the pattern -or !ellana tramoserica # %here reproductive e--ort %as related to &od' sie at a site )Fletcher 10*. Intraspeci-ic competition at increased densit' has &een -ound to result in a reduction in tissue in some "astropods# %hereas in !ellana tramoserica  it has &een -ound to result in a reduction o- "onad %ei"ht )Fletcher 10*. in the present stud'# the !1 population had the "reatest reproductive e--ort and smallest den+sit'# and pro&a&l' the "reatest availa&ilit' o- -ood. Donversel'# the 8 u  population had the smallest reproductive e--ort and "reatest den+sit'# and pro&a&l' the smallest availa&ilit' o- -ood. This is similar to the pattern -or !ellana tramoserica # %here reproductive e--ort %as related to densit' at a site )Fletcher 10*. This stud' demonstrates that  .  japonica  sho%ed noticea&le variation in their reproductive e--orts even %ithin "eo"raphicall' small distances. uch varia&ilit' in the &asic traits o- a species must have important impl'ca+tions -or their li-e histor' strate"'. Future stu+dies# ho%ever# are still needed to clari-' %he+ther the di--erences in reproductive e--ort o-  .  japonica  amon" those populations %ere due to environmental di--erences amon" ha&itats# "e+netic di--erences amon" populations# or a com+ &ination o- &oth. AK"5(E$'E&ETS I %ould like to thank Pro-. $. Tokeshi# ,r. . <ojima# $r. (. 4arahap# ,r. 3. Ba"e' and all mem&ers o- the ($3? K'ushu Univer+sit' -or help-ul advice and encoura"ement thro+u"hout this research# and critical readin" o- this  paper.  Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis Vol. VIII1, April 2012   6 http://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/JPKT  RE!EREES 3ranch $. 101. The &iolo"' o- limpets: ph'sical -ac+tors# ener"' -lo%# and ecolo"ical interaction. 5ceano+"raph' and $arine 3iolo"' (nnual !evie%# 1: 689A 807. Fletcher BJ. 10. 2aria&ilit' in the reproductive e--ort o- the limpet# !ellana tramoseria . 5ecolo"ia )3erlin*# C1: 69A6C. $ori K# Tanaka $. 10. Intertidal communit' structures and environmental condition o- exposed and sheltered rock' shores in (makusa# Japan. Pu&lications -rom the (makusa $arine 3iolo"ical ?a&orator' K'ushu Universit'# 17: 1AC. 5h"aki I. 6778. ,istri&ution o- Intertidal $acro&enthos (round 4atakejima Island. (r"onauta : 61A8. Parr' ,. 106. !eproductive e--ort in -our species o- intertidal limpet. $arine 3iolo"'# C>: 6C>A606. Paruntu DP. 6779. Intra and inter+speci-ic variations in the morphometr' o- -our intertidal "astropod species. J. Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan# 1 )1*:  − 99. Paruntu DP. 6711. Intraspeci-ic 2ariation in ro%th !ate amon" Three Populations o- the Intertidal astropod#  erita japonica  ),unker*. 3iota# 1C)6*: 81C+86. Paruntu DP# Tokeshi $. 6778. 2aria&ilit' in the repro+ductive characteristic o- local populations o- an intertidal "astropod#  erita japonica  ),unker*. 3en+thos !esearch# 90 )1*: > − 1. okal !!. and !ohl- FJ. 19. 3iometr' )Third =dition*. B. 4. Freeman and Dompan'# <e% ork. 00> p. pivak =,# ilva P2# ?ippi T(# 6716. 4a&itat !elated 2ariation In !eproduction Traits (mon" Int   ertidal Dra&s From outh%estern (tlantic. J. Drust. 3iol. 86)1*: 9>ACC. Takada # Kikuchi T. 17. $o&ile molluscan communi+ties in &oulder shores and the comparison %ith other intertidal ha&itats in (makusa. Pu&lications -rom the (makusa $arine 3iolo"ical ?a&orator' K'ushu Uni+versit'# 17: 19A1C0. Takada . 6770. Dontrastin" Dharacteristics In Increasin" and ,ecreasin" Phases o- <erita japonica )$ollusca: astropoda* Population 5n 3oulder hore. Pop. =col. 97: 81A78.
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks