Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis

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Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis
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  Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis Vol. VIII1, April 2012   1 http://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/JPKT  ITRASPEI!I VARIATI" I T#E REPR"$%TIVE E!!"RT A&"' T#REE P"P%(ATI"S "! A ITERTI$A( 'ASTR"P"$,  erita japonica  )$unker* ) Variasi Indeks Kematangan Gonad Interspesies pada Tiga Populasi Gastropoda Intertidal,  erita japonica (Dunder) * arolus P. Paruntu 1   1  Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas am !atulan"i# $anado# ula%esi Utara Penelitian ini &ertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan indeks kematan"an "onad dari "a   stropoda intertidal#  erita japonica  'an" hidup di ti"a ha&itat 'an" &er&eda di Pulau himoshima (makusa# K'ushu &a"ian &arat# Jepan". Parameter 'an" diamati pada setiap populasi adalah: )a* nilai rata+rata  &erat kerin" "onad matan"# )&* indeks kematan"an "onad# dan )c* hu&un"an antara indeks kematan"an "onad dan ukuran tu&uh. ,ata dicatat pada periode musim pemijahan. Keti"a populasi memperlihatkan nilai rata+rata &erat kerin" "onad 'an" matan" dan indeks kematan"an "onad 'an" &er&eda. Populasi  pantai &er&atu memiliki nilai rata+rata &erat kerin" matan" "onad dan indeks kematan"an "onad 'an"  palin" &esar# diikuti oleh nilai dari populasi pantai &er&atu &a"ian &a%ah dan populasi pantai &er&atu  &a"ian atas memiliki nilai 'an" palin" kecil. elanjutn'a# satu dari ti"a populasi# 'aitu populasi pantai  &er&atu &a"ian atas memperlihatkan indeks kematan"an "onad dari individu+individu &etina  . japonica   &erhu&un"an den"an ukuran tu&uhn'a. ekalipun indeks kematan"an "onad dari individu+individu  .  japonica  menin"kat secara si"ni-ikan den"an &ertam&ahn'a ukuran tu&uh# namun terdapat variasi intraspesi-ik pada  . japonica  dalam hal indeks kematan"an "onad menurut ha&itat %alaupun secara "eo"ra-is &erdekatan. Kata kun+i  ukuran tubuh matang kelamin, berat kering gonad matang, indeks kematangan gonad, variasi intraspesifik, erita japonica.  The aim o- the present research is to -i"ure out the reproductive e--ort o-  erita japonica  occurrin" in three di--erent intertidal ha&itats o- (makusa himoshima Island# %estern K'ushu# Japan. !ock' shore population and other t%o ston' shore populations )the upper ston' shore and the lo%er ston' shore* %ere descri&ed &ased on: )a* its mean mature "onad dr' %ei"ht# )&* reproductive e--ort# and )c* the relationship &et%een reproductive e--ort and &od' sie. ,ata recorded in the period o- spa%nin" season. The results revealed that there %ere mean mature "onad dr' %ei"ht and reproductive e--ort variations amon" three snail populations. $ean mature "onad dr' %ei"ht and reproductive e--ort %ere lar"er -or the !ock' shore population# intermediate -or lo%er stone shore population# and smaller -or the upper stone shore population. In one out o- three populations# i.e .# the upper stone shore population# reproductive e--ort o- mature -emales increased si"ni-icantl' %ith an increase in &od' sie. The data sho%ed that reproductive e--ort is related to adult &od' sie o-  . japonica . There %as an intraspeci-ic variation in reproductive e--ort amon" three populations o-  . japonica  over even small "eo"raphic distances. Ke-ords  mature body size, mature gonad dry weight, reproductive effort, intraspecific variation,  erita japonica.   ITR"$%TI" tudies on intra+speci-ic variations in di--erent ha&itats are important to understand+din" o- li-e histor' patterns. uch studies are use-ul to determine %hether di--erences amon"  populations occur due to "enetic di--erences amon" populations# environmental di--erences amon" ha&itats# or a com&ination o- &oth. The reproductive e--orts o- intertidal animals var' %ith the -ood suppl'# nutrient availa&ilit'# %a+ter stress# and shore hei"ht )Fletcher 10*. 2a+riation amon" local su&populations can &e ex+ plained &' local variation in &oth &iotic and a&iotic -actors includin" -ood a&undance# stre+n"th o- competition# and ha&itat structures )3ranch 101*. The &ehavior# a"e# and "ro%th o-  . ja ponica  have &een also &een documented as one o- the intertidal macro&enthos in rock' shores o- 4atakejima Island )5h"aki# 6778*. !ecruit+ment success# chan"e in densit' and distri&ution  Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis Vol. VIII1, April 2012   2 http://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/JPKT  ran"e o- this species have &een used as indica+tors -or shore environmental conditions )Taka+da# 6770*. 2ariation in the morphometr' o- e"" capsules and em&r'os# relationship &et%een -e+cundit' and sies o- capsules and em&r'os# and relationship &et%een adult &od' sie and repro+ductive traits o-  . japonica  have &een -ound a+mon" ei"ht local populations occurrin" in di--e+rent intertidal ha&itats o- (makusa himoshima Island# %estern K'ushu# Japan )Paruntu and To+keshi 6778*. Intra and inter+speci-ic variation in the morphometr' o- -our intertidal "astropods species# i.e. #  Monodonta labio  and  . japonica  -rom %estern K'ushu# Japan# and  . polita  and  . exuvia  -rom $anado# Indonesia %ere investi+"ated &' Paruntu )6779*. The "ro%th rates o-  .  japonica  occurrin" in three di--erent intertidal ha&itat o- (makusa himoshima Island# %estern K'ushu# Japan %ere also investi"ated &' Parun+tu )6716*. It is assumed# that individuals o-  .  japonica  -rom di--erent populations ma' sho% variation in reproductive e--ort# %hich ma' in turn &e associated %ith &od' sie. The aim o- this stud' is to determine variation in reproduc+tive e--ort amon" three local populations o-  .  japonica  inha&itin" di--erent intertidal ha&itats o- (makusa himoshima Island# %estern K'u+shu# Japan. peci-icall'# %e -ocused on )1* va+riation in mean mature "onad dr' %ei"ht#   )6* reproductive e--ort and )8* relationship &et%een reproductive e--ort and mature &od' sie. &ATERIA(S A$ &ET#"$S Stud- sites This research %as esta&lished on the Tomioka Peninsula )8681; <# 18776; =* o- (makusa himoshima Island# south+%estern Ja+ pan )Fi". 1*. 5ne stud' site %as set up on an exposed intertidal rock' ) i.e .# the upper (kai%a rock' shore 1 )!I** and t%o stud' sites %ere on the moderatel' exposed intertidal ston' shore ) i.e .# t%o tidal ones o- the ma"ariaki ston' shore 8# the upper ston' shore )8 u * and lo%er ston' shore )8 l  ** )Fi". 1*. 5n the rock' shore 1 )!1*# the upper one %as the onl' area that had &een o&served throu"h preliminar' stud' to sho% the presence  . japonica . It %as -ound that the slope o- this rock' %as steep# %hereas that o- ston' shore %as "entle. hore hei"ht di-+-erence &et%een the lo%er )8 l  * and upper )8 u * ston' shores %as 90 cm# and that &et%een the lo%er ston' )8 l  * and upper rock' )!1*# the shores hei"ht %as >1 cm# %hereas &et%een the upper ston' )8 u * and upper rock' )!1* shores %as 18 cm. It %as -ound that &et%een the upper rock' )!I* and upper ston' )8 u * shores# there %as no si"ni-icant shore hei"ht di--erence. For a "eneral description o- these shores# see $ori and Tanaka )10*# Takada and Kikuchi )17*# Paruntu and Tokeshi )6778*# Paruntu )6779*# and Paruntu )6711*. Si/e at aturit- and reprodu+tie eort Fi"ure 1. $ap o- stud' area. ?ocation o- samplin" sites )!1# 8 u # and 8 l  *. ($3?: (makusa $arine 3iolo"ical ?a&orator'# K'ushu Universit'. hell len"th at %hich snails &ecome se+xuall' mature# mature "onad dr' %ei"ht and re+ productive e--ort ) i.e .# the proportion o- mature "onad dr' %ei"ht out o- the total &od' tissue dr' %ei"ht* %ere investi"ated -or the upper rock' )!1*# upper ston' )8 u *# and lo%er ston' )8 l  * shore populations to determine i- sie at maturit'# mature "onad dr' %ei"ht and the reproductive e--ort varied amon" populations. (pproximatel' 177 snails over a sie ran"e )@> mm in shell len"th* %ere collected &' hand and -orceps at each site in the period o- spa%nin" season# i.e .# late (pril to earl' $a' 6776. This sie ran"e %as used &ecause preliminar' o&ser+vation indicated the maturation sie o- the overall populations %as &i""er than > mm. na+ils %ith mature "onads ) i.e .# 'ello% ovar' %ith  Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis Vol. VIII1, April 2012   3 http://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/JPKT  %hite cr'stal sac* and %ithout the cephalic pe+nis %ere considered to &e mature -emales  . ja ponica  )Fi". 6a# &*. 5n the other hand# snails %ith 'ello% "onad testis and the cephalic penis %ere considered to &e mature males  . japonica  )Fi". 6c#d*. nails %ere steamed -or 8A9 minutes and the %hole so-t &od' tissues %ere removed -rom the shells. $ature -emale and male "onads %ere separated out o- the %hole so-t &od' tissues under a dissectin" microscope. Bhen+ever# mature male "onads %ere di--icult to &e separated out o- the %hole &od' tissues# and then the' %ere o&tained &' omittin" seminal vesicle and testis parts )Fi". 6e*. The -emale and male shells# so-t &od' tissues )out o- "o+nad*# and "onads %ere dried at C7D -or >6 h to o&tain dr' %ei"ht o- shell# so-t &od' tissue# and "onad o- each individual. Then the -emale and male shells %ere measured &' usin" a di"ital electronic caliper to 7.71 mm precision. Bhe+reas total dr' %ei"ht o- the &od' tissues o- -e+male and male snails %ere derived as the dr' %ei"ht o- so-t &od' tissues o- -emale and male  plus the dr' %ei"ht o- mature -emale or male "onads# respectivel'. (n (<52( %as used to detect i- matu+re &od' sies and mature "onad dr' %ei"ht va+ried amon" three populations )okal E !    ohl- 19*. I- si"ni-icant e--ect %as detected# a Tuke'+Kramer multiple comparisons test %as emplo'ed to separate out %hich pairs o- sam+ ples actuall' di--ered. Furthermore# the data o- reproductive e--ort and mature &od' sie %ere trans-ormed to arcsine and natural lo"arithms# respectivel'# to sta&ilie the variances. These trans-ormed data %ere then anal'ed &' re"res+sion anal'sis to examine reproductive e--ortma+ture &od' sie relationship and &' (<52( and Tuke'+Kramer test to detect di--erence in repro+ductive e--ort amon" sites. RES%(TS Si/e at aturit- hell len"th at %hich -emale snails &e+came sexuall' mature and mean -emale matura+tion sie varied amon" three populations )Ta&le 1*. Female snails in the 8 u  population &e"an to mature &' >. mm# %hile -emale snails -rom the !1 and 8 l   did not mature until 17. mm and 17.1 mm# respectivel'. The !1 population had the lar"est mean -emale maturation sie )1.0 mm*# 8 l   population had intermediate mean -emale maturation sie )16.8 mm*# %hile the 8 u  population had the smallest mean -emale maturation sie ).1 mm* )Tuke'+Kramer test#    7.7771*. Furthermore# shell len"ths at %hich male snails &ecame sexuall' mature and mean male maturation sie also varied amon" three  populations )Ta&le 1*. $ale snails in the 8 u   population &e"an to mature &' >.9 mm# %hile male snails -rom the !1 and 8 l   did not mature until . mm and .> mm# respectivel'. The !1  population had the lar"est mean male matura+tion sie )18.C mm*# 8 l   population had inter+mediate mean male maturation sie )11.> mm*# %hile the 8 u  population had the smallest mean male maturation sie )0.0 mm* )Tuke'+Kramer test#    7.7771*. Reprodu+tie eort $ean mature -emale "onad dr' %ei"ht varied amon" three populations )Ta&le 1*. The !1 population had the lar"est mean mature -emale "onad dr' %ei"ht )7.766 "*# 8 l   popula+tion had intermediate mean mature -emale "o+nad dr' %ei"ht )7.718 "*# %hile the 8 u  popu+lation had the smallest mean mature -emale "o+nad dr' %ei"ht )7.778 "* )Tuke'+Kramer test#    7.7771*. Furthermore# mean mature male "o+nad dr' %ei"ht also varied amon" three popula+tions )Ta&le 1*. $ean mature male "onad dr' %ei"ht %as lar"er -or the !1 population )7.770 "*# intermediate -or 8 l   population )7.779 "*# and smaller -or 8 u  population )7.771 "* )Tuke'+Kramer test#     7.7771*. !elationship &et%een reproductive e-+-ort o- mature -emales )arcsine+trans-ormed  percenta"e values* and its lo" shells len"th %as investi"ated amon" three populations )Fi". 8a*. !e"ression lines -rom the !1 and 8 l   popula+tions %ere not si"ni-'cant indicatin" that repro+ductive e--ort o- mature -emales -rom each o- the t%o populations did not chan"e %ith snail sie# %hile re"ression line -rom the 8 u  popula+tion %as si"ni-icant# indicatin" that the repro+ductive e--ort o- mature -emales increased %ith its snail sie. Tuke'+Kramer test revealed that reproductive e--ort o- the !1@8 u # 8 l  @8 u # %hile the !1 G 8l )    7.7771*. !elationship  &et%een reproductive e--ort o- mature male individuals )arcsine+trans-ormed percenta"e va+lues* and its lo" shells len"th %as also investi+"ated amon" three populations )Fi". 8&*. !e+"ression lines -rom all three populations %ere not si"ni-icant# indicatin" that reproducetive e-+-ort o- mature males -rom each o- three popula+  Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis Vol. VIII1, April 2012   4 http://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/JPKT  tions did not chan"e %ith its snail sie. Tuke'+Kramer test revealed that reproductive e--ort o- the !1@8 u # 8 l  # and 8 l  @8 u  )    7.7771*. Ta&le 1. $ature &od' sie ran"e# mean mature &o+d' sie )H .,.*# mean mature "onad dr' %ei"ht )H .,.* -or three populations The num&er in the parenthesis repre+sents the num&er individuals examined. (ste+risks indicate that the values are si"ni-icantl' di--erent amon" three populations )Tuke'+Kramer test#      7.7771*. $IS%SSI" Three populations o-  . japonica  di--e+red markedl' in man' o- the population varia+ &les measured durin" this stud'. ie at %hich snails mature and maximum &od' sie are link+ed &ecause  . japonica  tends to cease "ro%th at maturit'. $aximum &od' sie o- snails var    ied amon" shores %ith snails -rom the 8 u  popula+tion ceasin" "ro%th at small sie# snails -rom the 8 l   population ceasin" "ro%th at interme+diate sie# %hile snails -rom the !1 population ceasin" "ro%th at lar"e sies )Paruntu 6716*. The reproductive e--ort o- an or"anism is measured &' ener"' &ud"ets and "onad to &o+d' %ei"ht ratios# &oth o- them "ave similar result -or limpet -ound &' Parr' )106*. This is supported &' pivak et al  . )6716* %ho studied the intertidal cra&s that ener"' demands in+-licted &' harsh environmental conditions could also a--ect the reproduction. In the present stu+d'# %e used the proportion o- mature -emale or male "onad dr' %ei"ht out o- total &od' tissue dr' %ei"ht as a measure o- the reproductive e-+-ort o- individuals -rom three intertidal shore  populations o-  . japonica . !eproductive e--ort o- an individual or species ma' or ma' not increase allometricall' %ith a"e. The reproductive e--ort o- the !ellana tramoserica  individuals %ithin a population %as -ound to &e independent o- a"e )Fletcher 10*. This stud' -ound that the reproductive e--ort o- -emale or male individuals -rom all three populations %as not di--erent over the sie ran"e )except the reproductive e--ort o- -emale individuals -rom the 8 u  population*. ,i--erences in reproductive e--ort# mature -emale and male "onad dr' %ei"ht# and the packa"in" o- em&r'os amon" sites# popula+tions appeared to di--er in the allocation o- ener"' to o--sprin". Fecundit' data su""est that the lar"est reproductive e--ort -rom the lar"est !1 shore snails invest the "reatest ener"' to o--sprin" per capsule# %hile that -rom the smallest 8 u  shore snails invest the smallest )Paruntu and Tokeshi 6778*. This is similar to the pattern -or !ellana tramoserica # %here reproductive e--ort %as related to &od' sie at a site )Fletcher 10*. Intraspeci-ic competition at increased densit' has &een -ound to result in a reduction in tissue in some "astropods# %hereas in !ellana tramoserica  it has &een -ound to result in a reduction o- "onad %ei"ht )Fletcher 10*. in the present stud'# the !1 population had the "reatest reproductive e--ort and smallest den+sit'# and pro&a&l' the "reatest availa&ilit' o- -ood. Donversel'# the 8 u  population had the smallest reproductive e--ort and "reatest den+sit'# and pro&a&l' the smallest availa&ilit' o- -ood. This is similar to the pattern -or !ellana tramoserica # %here reproductive e--ort %as related to densit' at a site )Fletcher 10*. This stud' demonstrates that  .  japonica  sho%ed noticea&le variation in their reproductive e--orts even %ithin "eo"raphicall' small distances. uch varia&ilit' in the &asic traits o- a species must have important impl'ca+tions -or their li-e histor' strate"'. Future stu+dies# ho%ever# are still needed to clari-' %he+ther the di--erences in reproductive e--ort o-  .  japonica  amon" those populations %ere due to environmental di--erences amon" ha&itats# "e+netic di--erences amon" populations# or a com+ &ination o- &oth. AK"5(E$'E&ETS I %ould like to thank Pro-. $. Tokeshi# ,r. . <ojima# $r. (. 4arahap# ,r. 3. Ba"e' and all mem&ers o- the ($3? K'ushu Univer+sit' -or help-ul advice and encoura"ement thro+u"hout this research# and critical readin" o- this  paper.  Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis Vol. VIII1, April 2012   6 http://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/JPKT  RE!EREES 3ranch $. 101. The &iolo"' o- limpets: ph'sical -ac+tors# ener"' -lo%# and ecolo"ical interaction. 5ceano+"raph' and $arine 3iolo"' (nnual !evie%# 1: 689A 807. Fletcher BJ. 10. 2aria&ilit' in the reproductive e--ort o- the limpet# !ellana tramoseria . 5ecolo"ia )3erlin*# C1: 69A6C. $ori K# Tanaka $. 10. Intertidal communit' structures and environmental condition o- exposed and sheltered rock' shores in (makusa# Japan. Pu&lications -rom the (makusa $arine 3iolo"ical ?a&orator' K'ushu Universit'# 17: 1AC. 5h"aki I. 6778. ,istri&ution o- Intertidal $acro&enthos (round 4atakejima Island. (r"onauta : 61A8. Parr' ,. 106. !eproductive e--ort in -our species o- intertidal limpet. $arine 3iolo"'# C>: 6C>A606. Paruntu DP. 6779. Intra and inter+speci-ic variations in the morphometr' o- -our intertidal "astropod species. J. Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan# 1 )1*:  − 99. Paruntu DP. 6711. Intraspeci-ic 2ariation in ro%th !ate amon" Three Populations o- the Intertidal astropod#  erita japonica  ),unker*. 3iota# 1C)6*: 81C+86. Paruntu DP# Tokeshi $. 6778. 2aria&ilit' in the repro+ductive characteristic o- local populations o- an intertidal "astropod#  erita japonica  ),unker*. 3en+thos !esearch# 90 )1*: > − 1. okal !!. and !ohl- FJ. 19. 3iometr' )Third =dition*. B. 4. Freeman and Dompan'# <e% ork. 00> p. pivak =,# ilva P2# ?ippi T(# 6716. 4a&itat !elated 2ariation In !eproduction Traits (mon" Int   ertidal Dra&s From outh%estern (tlantic. J. Drust. 3iol. 86)1*: 9>ACC. Takada # Kikuchi T. 17. $o&ile molluscan communi+ties in &oulder shores and the comparison %ith other intertidal ha&itats in (makusa. Pu&lications -rom the (makusa $arine 3iolo"ical ?a&orator' K'ushu Uni+versit'# 17: 19A1C0. Takada . 6770. Dontrastin" Dharacteristics In Increasin" and ,ecreasin" Phases o- <erita japonica )$ollusca: astropoda* Population 5n 3oulder hore. Pop. =col. 97: 81A78.
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