Noteworthy bat records from the Pacific Tropical rainforest region and adjacent dry forest in northwestern Peru

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Noteworthy bat records from the Pacific Tropical rainforest region and adjacent dry forest in northwestern Peru
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  I  NTRODUCTION The extreme northwestern region of Peru, Tumbes Department, is unique be-cause it harbors a typical lowland Ama-zonian fauna and flora but on the westernside of the Andes, much different from thedry forests and desert areas further south onthat side of the Andes (Koopman, 1978;Brack E., 1986). This region was classifiedas the Pacific Tropical rainforests ecologicalregion by Brack E. (1986), where trees suchas cetico Cecropia , palmeras  Aiphanes ,matapalo  Ficus ; and mammals such as pec-caries, ocelots, jaguars, river otters, red brocket deers, white-fronted capuchins andmantled howler monkeys are characteristic(Cabrera and Willink, 1980; Brack E., 1986;Zamora Jimeno, 1996).The Pacific Tropical rainforests ecologi-cal region, although very small, about15,000 ha, represent the southernmost ex-tension of the Pacific Province (Cabrera andWillink, 1980; Brack E., 1986) or the Col-ombian-Pacific Fauna of Chapman (1917,1926) which extend in South Americanorthward along the Ecuadorean and Col-ombian Pacific versant. Some other classifi-cations include the Pacific Tropical rain-forests within the Dry Forests (ZamoraJimeno, 1996) or the Equatorial Dry Forestsecological regions (Rodríguez, 1996; Ponte, Acta Chiropterologica, 9(2): 409–422, 2007 PLISSN 1508-1109 © Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS Noteworthy bat records from the Pacific Tropical rainforest region and adjacent dry forest in northwestern Peru V ÍCTOR  P ACHECO 1, 2 , R  ICHARD C ADENILLAS 1 , S ANDRA V ELAZCO 1 , E DITH S ALAS 1 , andU RSULA F AJARDO 11  Departamento de Mastozoología, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Apartado 14-0434, Lima-14, Peru 2 Corresponding author: E-mail: vpachecot@unmsm.edu.pe The bat fauna of the Pacific Tropical rainforest region in Peru is poorly known. Here we report noteworthyrange extensions of 12 bat species, including:  Diaemus youngi , Chrotopterus auritus ,  Micronycteris minuta ,  Mimon crenulatum , Vampyrum spectrum , Chiroderma salvini ,  Enchisthenes hartii ,  Noctilio leporinus , Thyroptera discifera ,  Eptesicus chiriquinus ,  Rhogeessa io , and  Myotis riparius . These document the firstconfirmed records for the department of Tumbes. All, except  E. hartii and  N. leporinus , are also first recordsfor the western slope of Peru. The record of  R. io is the first for Peru, while that of C. auritus is the first for the Pacific versant of the Andes. In total, 41 bat species are present in the Pacific Tropical rainforests andsurrounding dry forests, at the new Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, in Tumbes. This region requires urgentconservation programs, because the Pacific Tropical rainforest is threatened by human settlement, and resourceexploitation in spite of its protected status.  Key words :Chiroptera, Pacific Tropical rainforests, diversity, Peru, Tumbes, dry forests, Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape  1998). The definitions of these ecologicalsystems are based on climatic, ecological,soil, fauna and flora characteristics (ZamoraJimeno, 1996) but lack the biogeographicrelevance expressed by the definitions of Cabrera and Willink (1980) or Brack E.(1986).Previous bat diversity assessments for the region of Tumbes are scarce. Thomasand Thomas (1977) reported:  Phyllosto-mus discolor  ,  Artibeus fraterculus ,  Desmo-dus rotundus ,  Molossus molossus , and  Lonchophylla hesperia from owl-pellet remains or bat captures. Koopman (1978)added nine more bat species: Saccopteryxbilineata, Noctilio leporinus ,  Micronycterismegalotis ,  Phyllostomus hastatus , Glos- sophaga soricina , Carollia perspicillata , Uroderma bilobatum , Vampyrops helleri (actually  Platyrrhinus matapalensis  — seeVelazco, 2005), and  Amorphochilus schna-blii . Later, Graham and Barkley (1984)added Choeroniscus minor  and  Artibeus  jamaicensis . More recently, Rodríguez(1998) added Sturnira lilium (samples rei-dentified as S. luisi ), Vampyressa pusilla (currently V. thyone  — see Porter andBaker, 2004),  Myotis albescens , and  La- siurus ega .The Peruvian bat fauna is one of themost diverse in the World. Hice et al. (2004)estimated 158 species for Peru, but with Carollia manu described by Pacheco et al. (2004),  Platyrrhinus albericoi ,  P. ismaeli ,  P. masu ,and  P. matapalensis  by Velazco(2005), Carollia benkeithi  by Solari andBaker (2006),  Lonchophylla pattoni  byWoodman and Timm (2006), and numerousupdated distributions by Simmons (2005)and elsewhere, the total number of de-scribed bat species is now 161 (V. Pacheco,unpublished data). Here, we report a num- ber of noteworthy bat distributional recordsobtained on several expeditions to thePacific Tropical rainforests region of Tum- bes, Peru, from 2004 to 2006. M ATERIALSAND M ETHODS Selected measurements, taken from the skin labeland skull specimens, are recorded in millimeters(body mass in grams) and include the following: bodymass (W), head and body length (HBL), tail length(TL), hind foot length (HL), ear length (EL), forearmlength (FL), greatest skull length (GSL), condylo- basal length (CBL), condylocanine length (CCL), palatal length (PL), maxillary toothrow length(MTRL), zygomatic width (ZW), braincase width(BW), lacrimal width (LW), postorbital breadth(POB), palatal width at second molar (PWM2), pala-tal width at canines (PWC), and braincase height(BH) following Pacheco and Patterson (1992) and Pa-checo and Hocking (2006). Voucher specimens aredeposited in the Museo de Historia Natural, Univer-sidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Lima, Peru). Study Area We have surveyed five localities placed in theParque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, DepartamentoTumbes (Fig. 1), completing 705 mistnet-nights. Usually five nights were surveyed per locality, from0600 pm to midnight. Mistnets were placed at ground level, occasionally a few mistnets were set up at 20 mhigh. In this region the rainy season extends from November to April, while the dry season is from Mayto October.(1) Provincia Zarumilla, Distrito Matapalo,Quebrada Campo Verde, 03°50’44’’S, 80°11’11”W,570 m a.s.l. This place is located along a relativelywide stream near to Campo Verde control post; andwas surveyed in May 2005, May 2006, andSeptember 2006. It is a predominantly evergreen for-est which canopy reaches up to 30 m height. The mostcharacteristic plant species are: Triplaris cumingiana , Cavanillesia platanifolia , Guazuma ulmifolia , and  Ficus jacobii. The understory consists of dense bush-es that reach up to 6 m high. This locality belongs tothe Pacific Tropical rainforests ecosystem.(2) Provincia Zarumilla, Distrito Matapalo, Que- brada Los Naranjos, 03°50’15’’S, 80°11’44.99’’W,550 m a.s.l. Samples here were taken along a narrowstream between Faical and Campo Verde control postsin October 2004, May 2005, May 2006, and Sep-tember 2006. It is an undisturbed evergreen forestwhose canopy reaches up to 20–25 m height. Plantcomposition is similar to Quebrada Campo Verde,with the additionally conspicuous presence of  Aipha-nes  palms. This place belongs to Pacific Tropical rain-forests ecosystem.(3) Provincia Tumbes, Distrito Pampas de Hos- pital, Quebrada Faical, 03°49’19’’S, 80°15’30’’W,410V. Pacheco, R. Cadenillas, S. Velazco, E. Salas, and U. Fajardo  350 m a.s.l. This locality is near Faical biological sta-tion, and includes Faical and Las Pavas streams. Itwas sampled in June 2004, May 2005, May 2006, andSeptember 2006. The vegetation type is transitional between the Equatorial Dry forest and the PacificTropical rainforests. The canopy may reach 20 m withthe presence of lianas; whereas a dense understoryvegetation of bushes and lianas may reach up to 6 m.The most representative tree species are: Triplaris cumingiana , Cavanillesia platanifolia ,  Ficus jaco-bii ,  Bougainvillea peruviana , Ceiba trichistandra ,  Mutingia calabura , Tessaria integrifolia , and  Mimosa pellita. (4) Provincia Zarumilla, Distrito Matapalo, Car-rizalillo, 03°43’56.71’’S, 80°11’10.42’’W, 125 ma.s.l. This locality is situated in the left bank of theRío Zarumilla and was sampled in May 2006. Theveg-etation is transitional between the Equatorial Dry forest and the Pacific Tropical rainforests. Plant composition is similar to the locality of QuebradaFaical except that is more disturbed by the presence of cattle. Noteworthy bat records from northwestern Peru411F IG . 1. Bat collecting localities from Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Departamento Tumbes, Peru: 1 — Quebrada Campo Verde, 2 — Quebrada los Naranjos, 3 — Quebrada Faical, 4 — Carrizalillo, 5 — Quebrada Angostura 80°80°4°4°  412V. Pacheco, R. Cadenillas, S. Velazco, E. Salas, and U. Fajardo(5) Provincia Tumbes, Distrito Pampas de Hospi-tal, Angostura, 03°45’23’’S, 80°23’15’’W, 74 m a.s.l.This sampling locality is near the Angostura control post along a dry stream, and was evaluated in May2005, May 2006, and September 2006. The vegeta-tion type is a dry forest composed of trees of  Prosopis pallida and  Acacia macracantha in the lower areas;and trees of  Bursera graveolens , Ceiba trichistandra,Cordia lutea , and  Loxopterygium huasango in thehillsides. This site is moderately disturbed by bananaand lemon crops. R  ESULTS We documented notable range exten-sions of twelve species from western Peru,in the Pacific Tropical rainforests ecologicalregion. Species are arranged following Sim-mons (2005).  Diaemus youngi (Jentink, 1893)  New Specimens One male (MUSM 22132): Angostura,Platanal in September 2006, on the forestedge of a banana plantation.  Distribution This species is widely distributed fromTamaulipas (Mexico) south to northernArgentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and easternBrazil, including Trinidad and Margarita Is-land (Venezuela) (Simmons, 2005). On thewestern versant of the Andes, the specieswas unknown south of Colombia (Koop-man, 1988; Greenhall and Schutt, 1996; Al- buja, 1999; Tirira S., 1999). Recently, Mu-  Z oz-Saba and Alberico (2004) reported onespecimen from Riosucio, Parque Nacional Natural Los Katios, Chocó, and another from Loboguerrero, Valle Atuncelo, Valledel Cauca, in Colombia. Our specimen rep-resents the first record of the species for thewestern versant of the Peruvian Andes, thefirst record for the department of Tumbes,and the third specimen collected on thewestern side of the Andes. The distribution-al range of the species is extended morethan 940 km south from Loboguerrero,Colombia. General Comments Our specimen agrees with the character-istics provided by Koopman (1988 — seeTable 1), except that the postorbital regionis better defined, and the second upper mo-lar is lacking. Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856)  New Specimens One male (MUSM 19178): QuebradaFaical in June 2004.  Distribution This species is widely distributed in the Neotropics, from Veracruz (Mexico) southto the Guianas, southern Brazil, Peru,Bolivia, and northern Argentina. It occurs intropical rainforest, tropical deciduous for-est, and cloud forest from 0 to 2000 m(Medellín, 1989; Simmons, 2005). In SouthAmerica, it was not known for the Pacificversant of the Andes (Koopman, 1982;Albuja, 1999; Alberico et al. , 2000; Mu  Z oz-Saba and Alberico, 2004). This specimen isthe first report of the species for the Pacificversant of the Andes, first report of thewestern side of the Peruvian Andes, andfirst report for the department of Tumbes. Itrepresents a considerable range extension of more than 1,300 km on the western side of the Andes, suggesting it occurs in westernColombia and Ecuador. General Comments In this specimen, the ventral surface of the plagiopatagium is haired around the el- bow and basal forearm; and the basal half of the thumb is well haired. This specimendoes not differ in skin, skull and teeth char-acteristics with three specimens of C. au-ritus from southeastern Peruvian region(MUSM 5096, 13653, 16668).   Noteworthy bat records from northwestern Peru413  Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856)  New Specimens One female (MUSM 19189) and onemale (MUSM 19345): Quebrada Los Na-ranjos in October 2004 and May 2005.  Distribution This species inhabits the lowland rain-forests from Honduras to southern Brazil,Bolivia, and Peru; including the Guianasand Trinidad (López-González, 1998; Sim-mons, 2005).Our specimens represent the first re-cords of this species on the western side of the Peruvian Andes, and first records for the department of Tumbes. It extends therange of the species 580 km southwardalong the Pacific versant from the previousrecord from Hacienda La Granada in Ec-uador (Albuja, 1999). General Comments The pale ventral pelage, moderate notchin ear band, P 3 smaller than P 2 and P 4 , andcalcar shorter than foot are characteristicsthat agree with those provided by Simmons(1996).  Mimon crenulatum (E. Geoffroy, 1803)  New Specimens Four males (MUSM 19190, 19346,19347, 22173) and two females (MUSM19348, 22172): Quebrada Los Naranjos andQuebrada Angostura in 2004 and 2005, andCarrizalillo in 2006.  Distribution This species is widely distributed fromChiapas and Campeche (Mexico) to Guia-nas, eastern Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, east-ern Peru, and Trinidad (Simmons, 2005).Our specimens represent the first records of the species on the western side of thePeruvian Andes, and first record for the department of Tumbes. They were takenonly 55 km south of prior records fromCayancas, in southern Ecuador (Albuja,1999; Tirira S., 1999). Vampyrum spectrum (Linnaeus, 1758)  New Specimens One male (MUSM 22208): QuebradaAngostura in September 2006.  Distribution This species has a wide distribution inthe Neotropics from Veracruz (Mexico) toEcuador and Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Guianas,Trinidad, and perhaps Jamaica (Simmons,2005). On the western slope of the Andes,the species is known at Reserva Natural La Planada, el Hondón, Nari  Z o, Colombia(Mu  Z oz-Saba and Alberico, 2004), andVueltas Largas, Provincia Manabí, Ecuador (Albuja, 1999). Our specimen represent thefirst record of this species from the west-ern slope of the Peruvian Andes, and firstrecord for the department of Tumbes, extending the range distribution of the spe-cies 270 km south from Vueltas Largas,Ecuador. General Comments Published maps indicating the presenceof V. spectrum in western Peru (Navarro andWilson, 1982; Emmons and Feer, 1997;Eisenberg and Redford, 1999; Patterson et al. , 2005) were presumed distributions notsupported by voucher specimens in museumcollections. Chiroderma salvini Dobson, 1878  New Specimens One male (MUSM 19177): QuebradaLos Naranjos in October 2004.  Distribution This species has a wide distribution fromPeru, Bolivia, and Venezuela north to
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