Spots of interaction: an investigation on the relationship between firms and universities in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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Spots of interaction: an investigation on the relationship between firms and universities in Minas Gerais, Brazil
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   TEXTO PARA DISCUSSÃO N   286 SPOTS OF INTERACTION: AN INVESTIGATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIRMS AND UNIVERSITIES IN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL   Márcia Siqueira Rapini Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque Leandro Alves Silva Sara Gonçalves Antunes de Souza Hérica Morais Righi Wellington Marcelo Silva da Cruz Fevereiro de 2006    Ficha catalográfica 338.45:62(815.1) R218s 2006 Rapini, Márcia Siqueira Spots of interaction: an investigation on the relationship  between firms and universities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. / Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque; Leandro Alves Silva; Sara Gonçalves Antunes de Souza; Hérica Morais Righi; Wellington Marcelo Silva da Cruz. Belo Horizonte: UFMG/Cedeplar,   2006. - 47p. (Texto para discussão ; 286) 1. Minas Gerais – Indústrias – Inovações tecnológicas. 2. Pesquisa e desenvolvimento - Minas Gerais. 3. Cooperação universitária - Minas Gerais. I. Albuquerque, Eduardo da Motta e. II. Silva, Leandro Alves. III. Souza, Sara Gonçalves Antunes de. IV. Righi, Hérica Morais V. Cruz, Wellington Marcelo Silva da VI. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Centro de Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional. VII. Título. VIII. Série. CDU 2  UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS ECONÔMICAS CENTRO DE DESENVOLVIMENTO E PLANEJAMENTO REGIONAL SPOTS OF INTERACTION: AN INVESTIGATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIRMS AND UNIVERSITIES IN MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL *   Márcia Siqueira Rapini (IEL-FIEMG) Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (Cedeplar-UFMG) Leandro Alves Silva (Cedeplar-UFMG) Sara Gonçalves Antunes de Souza (UNIMONTES) Hérica Morais Righi (Cedeplar-UFMG) Wellington Marcelo Silva da Cruz (Cedeplar-UFMG) CEDEPLAR/FACE/UFMG BELO HORIZONTE 2006 *  The authors thank Richard Nelson for kindly providing the srcinal questionnaires of the Yale Survey and of the Carnegie Mellon Survey, and for enlightening discussions and comments on theoretical and methodological issues. The authors also thank Alvin Klevorick and Wesley Cohen for allowing the access to the srcinal questionnaires of those pioneering Surveys. Mariana Rebouças and her team at the IBGE have provided a worthwhile help preparing srcinal tables using data from PINTEC (2003). Silvana Cosac (CNPq) provided essential information about the CNPq Research Groups Directory. Carolina Vargas, Danielle Vieira, Patricia Silva, Wellington Cruz e Luigi Calvette are the research team that screened MG firms and interviewed the R&D performer firms. Research assistance from Thaís Henriques, Elaine Rodrigues, Raquel Guimarães and Felipe da Mata is acknowledged. Discussions of various versions of the questionnaire with Fabiana Santos, Heloísa Menezes, Christian Souza and Mauro Borges Lemos have contributed to shape its final format. Comments and suggestions from participants during two meetings of the Catch Up Project (New York, May 2005; and Tshwane,  November, 2005) and from participants of Globelics South Africa, 2005, improved this paper. Roberto Mazzoleni’s suggestions highlighted important issues for this new version. Financial support from BHTEC-UFMG-FINEP, Fapemig and CNPq is acknowledged. This research has benefited from the strategic logistic support of IEL-FIEMG. The usual remainder holds. 3  SUMÁRIO INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................6 1. BACKGROUND: INTERACTIONS IN IMMATURE NSIs ........................................................7 2. BRAZIL AND MINAS GERAIS: DATA ON FIRMS AND UNIVERSITIES ..............................9 2.1. Firms, R&D and Importance of Universities.............................................................................10 2.2. Universities, Interactive Research Groups and Firms................................................................12 2.3. Islands of R&D Commitment and Interactive Activities...........................................................16 3. THE TWO DATABASES .......................................................................................................16 3.1. MG Survey.................................................................................................................................16 3.2. CNPq Research Groups Directory.............................................................................................18 3.3. The Potential Complementarity Between these Databases........................................................20 4. MG SURVEY RESULTS: R&D-PERFORMER FIRMS AS RESPONDENTS ...........................21 4.1. Sources of Information...............................................................................................................21 4.2. Pathways of Knowledge Flow...................................................................................................25 4.3. Spots of Interaction (1)..............................................................................................................28 5. CNPq DIRECTORY RESULTS: RESEARCH GROUPS AS RESPONDENTS ..........................31 5.1. Science and Enginnering Fields and Types of Relationship......................................................31 5.2. Interactions Within and Outside Minas Gerais..........................................................................33 5.3. Spots of Interaction (2)..............................................................................................................35 6. MATCHING THE TWO DATABASES ...................................................................................38 6.1. The Firms in the Intersection.....................................................................................................38 6.2. Non-R&D Performers and Their Relationships.........................................................................39 6.3. Pinpointing Spots of Interaction in Minas Gerais......................................................................40 7. TWO PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH ...................................41 7.1. Two Preliminary Conclusions....................................................................................................41 7.2.1. The Nature of Interactions in an Immature NSI.................................................................41 7.2.2. The Dual Role of Universities in these Intractions.............................................................41 7.2. An Agenda for Further Research...............................................................................................42 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...........................................................................................................43 REFERENCES ...........................................................................................................................44 APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................47 4  RESUMO Manchas de interação caracterizam a natureza das conexões parciais entre ciência tecnologia em um sistema imaturo de inovação. Este artigo apresenta uma investigação realizada em Minas Gerais, a partir de uma base com grupos de pesquisa localizados em universidades e institutos de  pesquisa do estado (Diretório de Grupos de Pesquisa do CNPq) e de uma base construída a partir de uma versão adaptada do Yale Survey e do Carnegie Mellon Survey . Identificam-se manchas de interação, indicando como setores industriais utilizam-se de disciplinas científicas específicas. Identifica-se também a natureza dual do papel das universidades: substituir e complementar a P&D das firmas. ABSTRACT Spots of interaction summarize the nature of partial connections (between science and technology) operating in the Brazilian system of innovation. A pilot study in Minas Gerais, Brazil, uses two new research tools (for immature NSIs) and presents a database with research groups located in universities and a database built upon an adapted version of the pioneering Yale and Carnegie Mellon Surveys. These complementary databases identify spots of interaction, indicating how economic sectors use specific science and engineering fields. This investigation identifies a dual role of universities in immature NSIs, as substitutes and/or complements firms R&D. Key Words : Systems of innovation; underdevelopment; interactions between science and technology; surveys; universities.  Jel Classification : O0. 5
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